Where a woman’s levels of the sex hormones, Estrogens and Progesterone, are out of balance, then it’s called PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) that eventually leads to the growth of Ovarian Cysts (Benign masses on the Ovaries).


For a PCOS to take place, there must be at least two of the following three – Polycystic Ovaries, Irregular Menstrual cycle or an excess of male hormones. Once a woman has PCOS, it can affect her menstrual cycle, fertility, cardiac functions and above all, overall appearance.

Hailed as a common problem with short-term effects upon reproductive function and long-term effects upon the risk of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease, treatment of PCOS should include drug therapy as well as drastic lifestyle changes.



  • Hormonal imbalances in the body.
  • Genetic link, especially where the woman’s mother and sister also suffer from PCOS.
  • Higher than normal insulin (which helps to control the level of sugar in the blood), occurring from production of high amounts of insulin leading to resistance to insulin.
  • High insulin levels that in turn leads to other hormone problems including High LH and Testosterone. High Testosterone in turn can affect the woman’s menstruation and ovulation.
  • Overproduction of hormone called Androgen (a male sex hormone) that a woman’s body produces. This can affect the development and release of woman’s eggs during her ovulation. Also, excess insulin levels can cause high Androgen levels.


They usually begin soon after the woman begins to menstruate for the first time. The type and severity of symptoms varies from woman to woman.

  • Irregular menstrual periods.
  • Decrease in female sex hormones that in turn cause development of certain masculine characteristics including excess hair on the face, chest, stomach, thumbs, or toes; decrease in the size of the breast; deeper voice; and loss of hair.
  • Acne.
  • Weight Gain.
  • Pelvic Pain.
  • Depression.
  • Infertility.

Many women often have other health issues like Diabetes, Hypertension and High Cholesterol, all of which are linked to weight gain.


On the whole, 1 in every four young women is said to show signs of Polycystic Ovaries on an ultrasound. But eventually only some of the women are said to have other problems associated with PCOS.

Symptoms of PCOS is said to begin in the woman’s adolescence and can also appear later on in life, usually in the woman’s early or mid-twenties.



Though there is no definitive test for PCOS, the diagnosis of PCOS at Juhi Fertility Centre (JFC) is done by the doctor through

  • Review of the woman’s medical history.
  • Physical and Pelvic examination to look for signs of PCOS like swollen ovaries or swollen clitoris.
  • Blood Test that measures sex hormone levels.
  • Thyroid Function Test that helps to determine how much of thyroid hormone the woman’s body produces.
  • Fasting Glucose Test that measures the woman’s blood sugar levels.
  • Lipid Level Test that assesses the amount of cholesterol in the woman’s blood.
  • Vaginal Ultrasound that allows for creation of real-time images of the woman’s reproductive organs.


Treatment for a woman’s PCOS problem depends on her symptoms and whether she is planning a pregnancy.

There is no specific treatment cure for PCOS. However certain steps can be taken, they include:

The only viable treatment as recommended by doctors at JFC will be on control of symptoms and managing the condition to prevent further complications. This in turn will also help lower the risks of Infertility, Miscarriages, Diabetes, Heart Disease and Uterine Cancer.

As for the treatment process, they can include:

  • HEALTHY DIET / EXERCISE: It’s recommended for all women with PCOS, especially for those women who also have weight gain problem. Sticking to it daily with commitment will help to regulate the woman’s menstrual cycle and lower her blood glucose levels.
  • BIRTH CONTROL PILLS: This is recommended if the woman is not planning to get pregnant. If taken they can also help treat acne, regulate the menstrual cycle, and lower levels of male hormones like Testosterone in the body.
  • FERTILITY DRUGS: It’s recommended for women with PCOS problem as well as fertility issues. If taken it can help to aid in ovulation.
  • SURGERY: It could be recommended for some women with PCOS issue. Under the surgery process called Ovarian drilling, the doctor punctures the woman’s ovary with a small needle that carries an electric current. It helps to destroy part of the woman’s ovary. However it’s a short-term solution that can promote ovulation and reduce male hormone levels.
  • REGULAR CHECK-UPS: They are important to catch signs of PCOS complications like High Blood Pressure or High Cholesterol or Uterine Cancer or Heart Disease or Diabetes.

Proper weight control and no smoking / drinking alcohol are also important parts of treatment for PCOS, recommended by doctors at JFC.

As for medicines, ask the doctor how they need to be taken and when they are to be taken and in how much dosage. In case the woman patient with PCOS becomes pregnant, the doctor at JFC refers her case to a doctor who specializes in high-risk pregnancies for such women tend to have higher rate of miscarriages or premature delivery and also Gestational Diabetes.


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